CALIFORNIA ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT - The state law originally enacted in 1970, expresses the state's concern over California's threatened wildlife, defined rare and endangered wildlife, and gave authority to the Department of Fish and Game to "identify, conserve, protect, restore, and enhance any endangered species or any threatened species and its habitat in California...." The statute is under the state Fish and Game Code as Chapter 1.5.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION - The state agency established by the Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act in 1974 (Public Resources Code, Sections 25000 et seq.) responsible for energy policy. The Energy Commission's five major areas of responsibilities are:
- Forecasting future statewide energy needs
- Licensing power plants sufficient to meet those needs
- Promoting energy conservation and efficiency measures
- Developing renewable and alternative energy resources, including
providing assistance to develop clean transportation fuels
- Planning for and directing state response to energy emergencies
Funding for the Commission's activities comes from the Energy Resources Program Account, Federal Petroleum Violation Escrow Account and other sources.
CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT (CEQA - pronounced See' quah) Enacted in 1970 and amended through 1983, established state policy to maintain a high-quality environment in California and set up regulations to inhibit degradation of the environment.
CSE (CALIFORNIA SEASONAL EFFICIENCY) - See See Seasonal Efficiency.
CERTIFICATION - Process by which a motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or motor vehicle pollution control device satisfies the criteria adopted by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) for the control of specified air contaminants from vehicular sources (Health & Safety Code, Section 39018). Certification constitutes a guarantee by the manufacturer that the engine will meet certain standards at 50,000 miles; if not, it must be replaced or repaired without change.
CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION (CPUC) - A state agency created by constitutional amendment in 1911 to regulate the rates and services of more than 1,500 privately owned utilities and 20,000 transportation companies. The CPUC is an administrative agency that exercises both legislative and judicial powers; its decisions and orders may be appealed only to the California Supreme Court. The major duties of the CPUC are to regulate privately owned utilities, securing adequate service to the public at rates that are just and reasonable both to customers and shareholders of the utilities; including rates, electricity transmission lines and natural gas pipelines. The CPUC also provides electricity and natural gas forecasting, and analysis and planning of energy supply and resources. Its main headquarters are in San Francisco.
CALIFORNIA UTILITY RESEARCH COUNCIL (CURC) - Public Utilities Code, Sections 9201-9203 requires the California Energy Commission, the California Public Utilities Commission, and the investor-owned utilities (Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison, and San Diego Gas & Electric) to coordinate and promote consistency of research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs with state energy policy. The CURC provides coordination for and sharing of information on energy RD&D in California to avoid duplication of efforts.
CAPACITY (Electric utility) - The maximum amount of electricity that a generating unit, power plant or utility can produce under specified conditions. Capacity is measured in megawatts and is also referred to as the NAMEPLATE RATING.
CAPACITY FACTOR - A percentage that tells how much of a power plant's capacity is used over time. For example, typical plant capacity factors range as high as 80 percent for geothermal and 70 percent for cogeneration.
CARBON DIOXIDE - A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the air. Carbon dioxide, also called CO2, is exhaled by humans and animals and is absorbed by green growing things and by the sea.
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) - A colorless, odorless, highly poisonous gas made up of carbon and oxygen molecules formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon or carbonaceous material, including gasoline. It is a major air pollutant on the basis of weight.
CARCINOGENS - Are potential cancer-causing agents in the environment. They include among others: industrial chemical compounds found in food additives, pesticides and fertilizers, drugs, toy, household cleaners, toiletries and paints. Naturally occurring ultraviolet solar radiation is also a carcinogen.
CATALYTIC CRACKING - A refinery process to convert a high-boiling range fraction of petroleum (gas oil) to gasoline, olefin feed for alkylation, distillate, fuel oil and fuel gas by use of a catalyst and heat.
CATALYTIC COMBUSTION - In a catalytic combustion the combustion temperature is reduced by a catalyst. Lower temperatures result in near zero nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions.
CCHP - Combined cooling, heat and power. CCHP applications examples include the use of water treatment plant generated methane combusted to energize onsite reciprocating engines to run plant operations, and the waste heat from the generator is applied to digesters to increase process rates.
CELSIUS - A temperature scale based on the freezing (0 degrees) and boiling (100 degrees) points of water. Abbreviated as C in second and subsequent references in text. Formerly known as Centigrade. To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the number by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. For example:
10 degrees Celsius x 9 = 90; 90 / 5 = 12; 18 + 32 = 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
CFCs (CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS or CHLORINATED FLUOROCARBONS) - A family of artificially produced chemicals receiving much attention for their role in stratospheric ozone depletion. On a per molecule basis, these chemicals are several thousand times more effective as greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. Since they were introduced in the mid-1930s, CFCs have been used as refrigerants, solvents and in the production of foam material. The 1987 Montreal protocol on CFCs seeks to reduce their production by one-half by the year 1998.
CGH2 or CH2 - Compressed gaseous hydrogen.
CLEAN FUEL VEHICLE - Is frequently incorrectly used interchangeably with "alternative fuel vehicle." Generally, refers to vehicles that use low-emission, clean-burning fuels. Public Resources Code Section 25326 defines clean fuels, for purposes of the section only, as fuels designated by ARB for use in LEVs, ULEVs or ZEVs and include, but are not limited to, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, natural gas, and reformulated gasoline.
COAL CONVERSION - Changing coal into synthetic gas or liquid fuels. See GASIFICATION.
COP (COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE) - Used to rate the performance of a heat pump, the COP is the ratio of the rate of useful heat output delivered by the complete heat pump unit (exclusive of supplementary heating) to the corresponding rate of energy input, in consistent units and under specific conditions. [See California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Section 2-1602(c)(4)]
COGENERATOR - Cogenerators use the waste heat created by one process, for example during manufacturing, to produce steam which is used, in turn, to spin a turbine and generate electricity. Cogenerators may also be QFs.COMBINED CYCLE PLANT - An electric generating station that uses waste heat from its gas turbines to produce steam for conventional steam turbines.
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT - A plant designed to produce both heat and electricity from a single heat source. Note: This term is being used in place of the term "cogenerator" that was used by EIA in the past. CHP better describes the facilities because some of the plants included do not produce heat and power in a sequential fashion and, as a result, do not meet the legal definition of cogeneration specified in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA).
COMFORT CONDITIONING - The process of treating air to simultaneously control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to meet the comfort requirements of the occupants of the conditioned space.
COMPACT FLUORESCENT BULB - These are also known as "screw-in fluorescent replacements for incandescent" or "screw-ins." Compact fluorescent bulbs combine the efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience of a standard incandescent bulb. There are many styles of compact fluorescent, including exit light fixtures and floodlights (lamps containing reflectors). Many screw into a standard light socket, and most produce a similar color of light as a standard incandescent bulb.
COMPETITIVE TRANSMISSION CHARGE - A non-bypassable charge that customers pay to a utility for the recovery of its STRANDED COSTS.
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) - natural gas compressed under high pressure, typically between 2,000 and 3,600 pounds per square inch, held in a container. The gas expands when released for use as a fuel.
COMPRESSED GAS STORAGE - Storage device for gasses (e.g. hydrogen, natural gas, nitrogen) at room temperature under high pressure (typically some 20 MPa).
CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA - The floor area of enclosed conditioned spaces on all floors measured from the interior surfaces of exterior partitions for nonresidential buildings and from the exterior surfaces of exterior partitions for residential buildings. [See California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Section 2-5302]
CONDITIONED SPACE, DIRECTLY - An enclosed space that is provided with heating equipment that has a capacity exceeding 10 Btus/(hr-ft2), or with cooling equipment that has a capacity exceeding 10 Btus/(hr-ft2). An exception is if the heating and cooling equipment is designed and thermostatically controlled to maintain a process environment temperature less than 65 degrees Fahrenheit or greater than 85 degrees Fahrenheit for the whole space the equipment serves. [See California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Section 2- 5302]
CONDITIONED SPACE, INDIRECTLY - Enclosed space that: (1) has a greater area weighted heat transfer coefficient (u-value) between it and directly conditioned spaces than between it and the outdoors or unconditioned space; (2) has air transferred from directly conditioned space moving through it at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour.
CONDUCTANCE - The quantity of heat, in Btu's, that will flow through one square foot of material in one hour, when there is a 1 degree F temperature difference between both surfaces. Conductance values are given for a specific thickness of material, not per inch thickness.
CONDUCTIVITY (k) - The quantity of heat that will flow through one square foot of homogeneous material, one inch thick, in one hour, when there is a temperature difference of one degree Fahrenheit between its surfaces.
CONSERVATION - Steps taken to cause less energy to be used than would otherwise be the case. These steps may involve improved efficiency, avoidance of waste, reduced consumption, etc. They may involve installing equipment (such as a computer to ensure efficient energy use), modifying equipment (such as making a boiler more efficient), adding insulation, changing behavior patterns, etc.
CONTRACT PATH - The most direct physical transmission tie between two interconnected entities. When utility systems interchange power, the transfer is presumed to take place across the "contract path," notwithstanding the electrical fact that power flow in the network will distribute in accordance with network flow conditions. This term can also mean to arrange for power transfer between systems. (See also Parallel path flow)
CONTROL AREA - An electric power system, or a combination of electric power systems, to which a common automatic generation control (AGC) is applied to match the power output of generating units within the area to demand. The control area of the ISO is the state of California.
CONTINGENCY PLANNING - The Energy Commission's strategy to respond to impending energy emergencies such as curtailment or shortage of fuel or power because of natural disasters or the result of human or political causes, or a clear threat to public health, safety or welfare. The contingency plan specifies state actions to alleviate the impacts of a possible shortage or disruption of petroleum, natural gas or electricity. The plan is reviewed and updated at least every five years, with the last plan being adopted in 1999. Legislative authority for the California Energy Shortage Contingency Plan is found in Public Resources Code, Section 25216.5.
CONVERTER - Any technology that changes the potential energy in a fuel into a different from of energy such as heat or motion. The term also is used to mean an apparatus that changes the quantity or quality of electrical energy.
COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (CLTD) - A value used in cooling load calculations for the effective temperature difference (delta T) across a wall or ceiling, which accounts for the effect of radiant heat as well as the temperature difference.
CO-OP - This is the commonly used term for a rural electric cooperative. Rural electric cooperatives generate and purchase wholesale power, arrange for the transmission of that power, and then distribute the power to serve the demand of rural customers. Co-ops typically become involved in ancillary services such as energy conservation, load management and other demand-side management programs in order to serve their customers at least cost.
CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY (CAFE) - The U.S. Congress enacted The "Energy Policy Conservation Act" in 1975 and established Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for passenger cars and light trucks. CAFE is the sales weighted average fuel economy, expressed in miles per gallon (MPG) of a car manufacturer's fleet of passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8500 lbs or less, manufactured for sale in the US at any given model year. Current CAFE standards are 27.5 MPG for passenger cars and 20.7 MPG for light trucks.
CRUDE OIL STOCKS - Stocks held at refineries and at pipeline terminals. Does not include stocks held on leases (storage facilities adjacent to the wells). In California, crude oil stocks in 1990 are approximately 18 million barrels on any given day.
CUBIC FOOT - The most common unit of measurement of natural gas volume. It equals the amount of gas required to fill a volume of one cubic foot under stated conditions of temperature, pressure and water vapor. One cubic foot of natural gas has an energy content of approximately 1,000 Btus. One hundred (100) cubic feet equals one therm (100 ft3 = 1 therm).
CRYOADSORPTION STORAGE - A special type of graphite storage. Carbon is able to adsorb hydrogen. Different qualities of carbon can adsorb higher quantities of hydrogen under certain temperature and pressure conditions than could be stored without the carbon under the same conditions. Temperatures are below 0°C cryogenic and above boiling temperature of hydrogen (20 K). The pressure levels are above 5 MPa.
CRYOGENIC - Greek kryos: cold, frost. Applied to gases cryogenic refers to low temperatures where the gases are in their liquid phase. For natural gas the boiling temperature (where the phase transition from liquid to gaseous occurs) is -161° C (111.5 K) and for hydrogen it is -253° C (20 K).