ILEV (Inherently Low Emission Vehicle) - Term used by federal government for any vehicle that is certified to meet the California Air Resources Board's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards for non-methane organic gases and carbon monoxide, ULEV standards for nitrogen oxides and does not emit any evaporative emissions.
IMBALANCE ENERGY - The real-time change in generation output or demand requested by the ISO to maintain reliability of the ISO-controlled grid. Sources of imbalance energy include regulation, spinning and non-spinning reserves, replacement reserve, and energy from other generating units able to respond to the ISO's request for more or less energy.
INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCER - An Independent Power Producer (IPP) generates power that is purchased by an electric utility at wholesale prices. The utility then resells this power to end-use customers. Although IPPs generate power, they are not franchised utilities, government agencies or QFs. IPPs usually do not own transmission lines to transmit the power that they generate.
INDIGENOUS ENERGY RESOURCES - Power and heat derived from sources native to California. These include geothermal, hydro, biomass, solar and wind energy. The term usually is understood to include cogeneration facilities.
INFILTRATION BARRIER - A material placed on the outside or the inside of exterior wall framing to restrict inward air leakage, while permitting the outward escape of water vapor from the wall cavity. [See California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Section 2-5302]
INFRASTRUCTURE - Generally refers to the recharging and refueling network necessary to successful development, production, commercialization and operation of alternative fuel vehicles, including fuel supply, public and private recharging and refueling facilities, standard specifications for refueling outlets, customer service, education and training, and building code regulations.
INJECTION - (Petroleum) - Forcing gas or water into an oil well to increase pressure and cause more oil to come to the surface. See THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY.
INSULATION, THERMAL - A material having a relatively high resistance of heat flow and used principally to retard heat flow. See R-VALUE.
INTERCHANGE (Electric utility) - The agreement among interconnected utilities under which they buy, sell and exchange power among themselves. This can, for example, provide for economy energy and emergency power supplies.
INTERCONNECTION (Electric utility) - The linkage of transmission lines between two utilities, enabling power to be moved in either direction. Interconnections allow the utilities to help contain costs while enhancing system reliability.
INTERESTED PARTY - Any person whom the commission finds and acknowledges as having a real and direct interest in any proceeding or action carried on, under, or as a result of the operation of, this division.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE - An engine in which fuel is burned inside the engine. A car's gasoline engine or rotary engine is an example of an internal combustion engine. It differs from engines having an external furnace, such as a steam engine.
INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES - A private company that provides a utility, such as water, natural gas or electricity, to a specific service area. The investor-owned utility is regulated by the California Public Utilities Commission. In California the investor owned utilities supplying energy are:
- Canadian Pacific National Corporation
Gas and Electric Company
- Pacific Power and Light Company
- San Diego Gas & Electric
- Sierra Pacific Power
- Southern California Edison Company
California Gas Company (The Gas Company)
- Southwest Gas
INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING(IRP) - A public planning process and framework within which the costs and benefits of both demand- and supply-side resources are evaluated to develop the least-total-cost mix of utility resource options. In many states, IRP includes a means for considering environmental damages caused by electricity supply/transmission and identifying cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy alternatives. IRP has become a formal process prescribed by law in some states and under some provisions of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1992.
INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING PRINCIPLES - The underlying principles of IRP can be distinguished from the formal process of developing an approved utility resource plan for utility investments in supply- and demand-side resources. A primary principle is to provide a framework for comparing a variety of supply- and demand-side and transmission resource costs and attributes outside of the basic provision (or reduction) of electric capacity and energy. These resources may be owned or constructed by any entity and may be acquired through contracts as well as through direct investments. Another principle is the incorporation of risk and uncertainty into the planning analysis. The public participation aspects of IRP allow public and regulatory involvement in the planning rather than the siting stage of project development.
ISDN - INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK. A 128 Kbps(kilobytes per second) digital telephone service available in many parts of the country though not universally available that may be able to substitute for fiber optic cable in every respect except possibly television transmission.
ISO - INDEPENDENT SYSTEM OPERATOR. A neutral operator responsible for maintaining instantaneous balance of the grid system. The ISO performs its function by controlling the dispatch of flexible plants to ensure that loads match resources available to the system.
IRON SPONGE STORAGE - Iron sponge can be used as a hydrogen storage material. Hydrogen and "rust" (Fe3O4) are converted into pure iron ("iron sponge") which is transported to the hydrogen consumption site. In the reverse reaction (oxidation) "rust" is produced liberating the hydrogen. The iron sponge storage can also be filled/ loaded with synthesis gas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) also liberating pure hydrogen in the reverse reaction. Iron sponge storage is in an early stage of development.