PARALLEL PATH FLOW - As defined by NERC, this refers to the flow of electric power on an electric system's transmission facilities resulting from scheduled electric power transfers between two other electric systems. (Electric power flows on all interconnected parallel paths in amounts inversely proportional to each path's resistance.)
PARTIAL OXIDATION - Conversion of hydrocarbons (diesel, residual oil etc.) into a synthesis gas that consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The necessary energy is supplied by the combustion ("oxidation") of parts ("partial") of the feedstock in the process itself. Partial oxidation is a common process for the production of hydrogen (the synthesis gas is converted into pure hydrogen by converting the carbon monoxide and water into carbon dioxide and hydrogen and by subsequently separating the carbon dioxide).
PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY - Use of the sun to help meet a building's energy needs by means of architectural design (such as arrangement of windows) and materials (such as floors that store heat, or other thermal mass).
PEAT - A heterogeneous mixture of partly decomposed organic matter that has accumulated in a water saturated environment over a very long period of time. Peat geologically is considered a very young form of coal and has a heating value of 6,600 Btu/pound in situ. California has minor peat resources.
PEFC - PEMFC
PEMFC - Proton exchange membrane fuel cell; with proton conducting membrane as electrolyte; operating temperature 60 to 80°C; fuel: pure hydrogen; state of the art: in 1997 first systems in commercial operation in the very small power range (>50 W), larger units in series production for mobile and stationary applications before the turn of the century.
PERFORMANCE-BASED REGULATION (PBR) - Any rate-setting mechanism which attempts to link rewards (generally profits) to desired results or targets. PBR sets rates, or components of rates, for a period of time based on external indices rather than a utility's cost-of-service. Other definitions include light-handed regulation which is less costly and less subject to debate and litigation. A form of rate regulation which provides utilities with better incentives to reduce their costs than does cost-of-service regulation.
PADD (PETROLEUM ADMINISTRATION FOR DEFENSE DISTRICTS) - The United States is divided by the U.S. Department of Energy into five PADD regions for planning purposes. The states within PADD V are Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon and Washington, which are linked closely by their oil supply network. Since very little petroleum product is export outside the district, PADD V is essentially a self-contained oil supply system with Alaska and California the main producers and California refining the majority of the crude oil consumed in the PADD.
PHOTOBIOLOGICAL WATER SPLITTING - There are different biological processes that liberate hydrogen or where hydrogen is produced as an intermediate product. Photobiological processes as e.g. photosynthesis use the solar radiation as source of energy, while fermentation processes that take place in the absence of light take advantage of the energy stored in the feedstock (e.g. glucose). There are several first efforts to use photobiological water splitting for the technical production of hydrogen.
PCBs (POLYCHLORONATED BIPHENYLS) - A group of organic compounds used in the manufacture of plastics and formerly used as a coolant in electric transformers. In the environment, PCBs are highly toxic to aquatic life. They persist in the environment for long periods of time and are biologically accumulative.
PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT - The functions of resource planning and procurement under a traditional utility structure. Portfolio management can also be defined as the aggregation and management of a diverse portfolio of supply (and demand-reduction) resources which will act as a hedge against various risks that may affect specific resources (i.e., fuel price fluctuations and certainty of supply, common mode failures, operational reliability, changes in environmental regulations, and the risk of health, safety, and environmental damages that may occur as a result of operating some supply resources). Under a more market-driven power sector with a "powerpool" or POOLCO wholesale market structure, a portfolio manager would: aggregate and manage a diverse portfolio of spot-market purchases, contracts-for-differences, futures contracts and other market-hedging-type contracts and mechanisms.
POWER POOL - An entity established to coordinate short-term operations to maintain system stability and achieve least-cost dispatch. The dispatch provides backup supplies, short-term excess sales, reactive power support, and spinning reserve. Historically, some of these services were provided on an unpriced basis as part of the members' utility franchise obligations. Coordinating short-term operations includes the aggregation and firming of power from various generators, arranging exchanges between generators, and establishing (or enforcing) the rules of conduct for wholesale transactions. The pool may own, manage and/or operate the transmission lines ("wires") or be an independent entity that manages the transactions between entities. Often, the power pool is not meant to provide transmission access and pricing, or settlement mechanisms if differences between contracted volumes among buyers and sellers exist.
PRIMARY ENERGY - Energy carrier to be found in nature (e.g. solar energy, wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas).
PROPANE - A gas that is both present in natural gas and refined from crude oil. It is used for heating, lighting and industrial applications. See also LPG.
PUBLIC ADVISER - A appointee of the governor who attends all meetings of the California Energy Commission and provides assistance to members of the public and intervenors in cases before the Commission.
PUBLIC INTEREST GOALS - Public interest goals of electric utility regulation include: 1) inter-and intra-class and intergenerational equity); 2) the equal treatment of equals (horizontal equity); 3)balancing long- and short-term goals that have the potential to affect intergenerational balance; 4)protecting against the abuse of monopoly power; and 5) general protection of the health and welfare of the citizens of the state, nation, and world. Environmental and other types of social costs are subsumed under the equity and health and welfare responsibilities.
PUHCA - Short for the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. This act prohibits acquisition of any wholesale or retail electric business through a holding company unless that business forms part of an integrated public utility system when combined with the utility's other electric business. The legislation also restricts ownership of an electric business by non-utility corporations.
PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC STORAGE - Commercial method used for large-scale storage of power. During off-peak times, excess power is used to pump water to a reservoir. During peak times, the reservoir releases water to operate hydroelectric generators.
PURPA - Acronym for the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978. Among other things, this federal legislation requires utilities to buy electric power from private "qualifying facilities," at an avoided cost rate. This avoided cost rate is equivalent to what it would have otherwise cost the utility to generate or purchase that power themselves. Utilities must further provide customers who choose to self-generate a reasonably priced back-up supply of electricity. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) implement PURPA. Under the Act, each electric utility is required to offer to purchase available electric energy from cogeneration and small power production facilities.